Different Types of 3D Printer or 3D Printing Technology

3d-printed3D Printing technology is growing fast and it is considered a 4th Industrial Revolution. Here are different types of 3D Printer that are slowly changing the world.

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)-

FDM stands for Fused Deposition Modeling. It can create parts in geometries that you can’t do in an injection moulding.

That’s going to create a revolution in the near future, and this technology will be adopted as a major process for manufacturing components.

Fused Deposition Modelling

It’s a fancy word for laying down a small bead of plastic. What’s really cool is you can have a real engineering grade thermal plastic.

When someone needs an ABS or polycarbonate or a high-temperature ULTEM, we can actually print it directly as opposed to a casting, part, or having the injected moulded parts done.

You’re getting close to the same quality in mechanical properties and aesthetics as you would in an injection moulded part, but you’re getting it in an additive process.

The software takes a 3D data file and it slices it into layers. Then creates a tool path that is sent to the machine.

3D Printed House

The raw material is produced into a filament-like fishing line type form.

That filament is wrapped around a spool so that your cartridge of raw material is going to be used to build parts.

The material then gets fed up through the machine all the way to the head where it’s liquefied and extruded in fine layers.

The support material is extruded at the same time, and then layer by layer the part is growing.

When the part is completed then, it’s removed from the build platform, and then the support material is removed.

We also offer pulse finishing operations that can smooth out those layers.

So whether it’s a hand finishing or cosmetic paint, we can still provide smooth-looking parts.

We’ve developed a technology to fit a full breath of geometry sets.

It can be used anywhere from small prototypes for mock-ups and test-fitting parts to really large structural pieces that go on aeroplanes or UAVs.

 

Stereolithography (SLA)-

Stereolithography, or SLA, is a rapid prototyping process used to create parts from 3D CAD data in a matter of hours.

SLA is a highly accurate additive manufacturing process and may also be referred to as rapid prototyping or 3D printing.

Stereolithography

Models created with this technology are typically used as concept models, for form and fit studies, or as master patterns for moulding techniques.

The SLA process begins when CAD data is sliced into thin cross-sections or layers, typically about six-thousandths of an inch thick. This data is then transferred to an SLA additive manufacturing system containing a vat of UV-curable photopolymer.

The machine begins to build the part one layer at a time. Each layer is constructed from an ultraviolet laser that is directed by X and Y scanning mirrors.

As the laser traces the cross-section on the surface of the resin, the liquid material is hardened on contact. Once a layer is complete, the build platform is indexed down to make room for the next layer.

3D Printed

A recoater blade moves across the surface ensuring a thin coat of fresh liquid resin is evenly spread over the object.

The laser continues to trace and form each layer top of the previous layer, building from the bottom up.

The completed part is then carefully removed from the liquid and separated from the platform.

A chemical bath removes excess resin and the part is cured in an ultraviolet oven.

Any support structures are also removed at this time.

The main physical differentiation lies in the arrangement of the core components, such as the light source, the build platform, and the resin tank.

With numerous hand sanding and professional paint options available through service providers such as centurion3d, Stereolithography has become an excellent economical choice for rapid appearance models.

A wide variety of industries have embraced SLA including medical, automotive, entertainment, aerospace and consumer products.

 

Continuous Liquid Interface Production-

A bunch of scientists from a company called carbon 3d just introduced a totally new kind of 3d printing. They were actually inspired to make it from the movie Terminator.

Conventional 3d printing involves a printing head that passes over and over across a platform depositing a thin layer of material each time and this 3d printing forms an object continuously out of a liquid resin.

Continuous Liquid Interface Production

So what’s happening here is you have a bath of liquid resin that solidifies when the light hits it. When the platform dips into this resin and as it rises up, you have a projector underneath the resin pool that’s projecting a series of cross-sectional images that are the exact shape of the object.

As the platform slowly moves upwards the projector moves through the different images, the different cross sections and that causes the object to form in the shape you want.

Wherever the violet light hits it, that’s where the plastic solidifies. So this could be a big deal because it’s a lot faster than conventional 3d printers.

It works in minutes instead of hours. Right now 3d printing is still kind of a niche industry.

People use it to make models or prototypes but if this new 3d printer can be perfected it could be possible for it to be used to make mass-produced goods.

 

PolyJet Technology-

PolyJet is a 3d printing method that makes beautiful precise models in a huge variety of materials and colours.

It works like an inkjet printer but instead of jetting drops of ink PolyJet 3d printers check tiny droplets of liquid plastic.

Polyjet Printing

A UV light instantly cures the plastic solidifying it and so later bilayer complex models take shape. The most advanced poly jet systems can build multi-material parts with soft rigid clear and colourful.

You can even adjust material properties like heat resistance and durability.

The same technology that makes gorgeous prototypes also makes precise manufacturing tools.

Designers can predict future needs and serve people with the exact services. Manufacturers can deliver better products.

With faster and less waste researchers have new methods of saving lives poly jet is reshaping industries like film, fashion and medicine.

 

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) –

Instead of designing or manufacture, you’re manufacturing for design. You can make anything, any design. Any curves, any undercuts. Because it’s built on layers, it’s limitless.

Laser Sintering is powder-based thermal 3D printing manufacturing process. It uses a laser to sinter or melt layers of powder to grow the part.Selective Laser Sintering

The cool thing about it is it’s a layer-by-layer additive process, and you can do very, very complex geometries that you can’t do in traditional manufacturing techniques.

Laser Sintering produces real parts, not just prototypes.

It’s very, very functional, so you can actually do field testing and do functional testing on a part.

It’s not just a show-and-tell piece. We start with a CAD file and we integrate that CAD file to create two-dimensional slices.

That entire build area is heated up to close to the melt point, and then there’s a laser that actually heats where you want the solid part to be.

The build platform drops down as each layer is grown and a new layer of power is added on top. And again, the laser shoots down sintering each layer to make a solid part.

3D Printed Auto

It’s a process that’s done at elevated temperature, so it’s done close to the melting point of that material.

And what that does, the powder will actually fuse together.

And that actually creates what we call a cake, or a supporting structure for the parts to be built in. And since it’s plastic, it’s easily brushed away, and those parts can be excavated like any kind of archaeology dig.

Then it goes through custom post-processing phase. It’s all dependent on the customer’s requirements or needs or the application.

We can apply paints, dyes- there are tons of options after that part comes out of the machine. The greatest advantage of the SLS technology is material of choice.

So whether you need flexibility, strength or rigidity, chances are we have a material in the SLS process that can provide the solution you need.

The sky is really the limit because people are very creative. And so, they’re going come up with new Nobel ways to use those technologies.

And Laser Sintering has been the one that has led the change.

 

Digital Light Projector (DLP) –

DLP 3D Printer are very flexible. It works on the DLP technology.

DLP is one of the most flexible semiconductors in use today you’ll find it in projection systems ranging from cinema projectors all the way down to cell phones.

DLP

However many developers are also using this amazing technology in new applications ranging from measuring and sensing to digital exposure to intelligent illumination.

Even wavelength control DLP can be used with many different light sources ranging from lamps to LEDs to even lasers.

Ranging from wavelengths the UV all the way up through the near-infrared at the heart of every DLP chipset is the digital micromirror device also known as the DMD.  

DMD is a MEMS device that belongs to a class of optical MEMS known as spatial light modulator x.

When combined with optics and light sources a spatial light modulator allows users to program high-speed, very efficient patterns of light.

Each DMD comes with a controller from Ti.

This ensures a reliable operation of the micromirror array as well as provides a convenient interface for users to provide data and control the patterns on the micromirrors.

DLP 3D printing is very fast because it projects the profile of an entire layer at one time, turning 2-dimensional images into a 3D object.

It also gives users an easy way to synchronize with peripheral components like sensors cameras or even motors in addition Ti offers.

This printers can produce details with much higher resolution than laser-based SLA 3D printers. 

DLP 3D printing is faster and can print objects with a higher resolution. 

 

Multijet Technology-

The Multijet Technology made of a printer build unit and processing station with fast cooling with a more efficient 3d printing workflow.

Multijet

The jet fusion 3d printing starts producing more functional parts within the same day upto 10 times faster and at the lowest cost.

How Does A 3D Printer Work, its Types And Parts?

What can be 3d printed?

Basically, anything you want.What can be 3d printed

Any solid object you can print out like sunglasses, milk jug, a boat propeller pretty much any solid object you can print out which is awesome.

There are some famous 3d printers like MakerBot or Ultimaker. But these laser printers are expensive and they’re really high quality.

They both are good for beginners but they’re probably too expensive for people to start out. But there are some different options you can use that might be a little bit less known but still get the job done.

Global3d labs printer are best with little investment. They have category according to your budget.

 

CAD Modelling-

Let’s start with 3d CAD model a three-dimensional model on the computer of the object which you want to print. After designing CAD model we export that as a dot STL file share lithography file and from there we can import that STL file into our slicing software.

CAD Modelling

In the slicing software, we can edit the layers, the tool path, the temperature, the colour and how fast you want to print.

After editing send that code that it to slicer which makes a dot g-code file off to the 3d printer.

Click print button on the printer so that it makes to our object that we made in the CAD model.

Just like magic printing a button and you can get any physical model you want.

You can also download CAD file online and create a three-dimensional object.

 Types of 3D Printer

There are two main types of 3d printing

FDM- Which is the most popular one fuel deposition modelling and SLI with this Stereolithography.

 

FDM-

FDM printers are the most popular because it works on an additive process, it’s not that messy, it’s not that hard to use and they are pretty cheap.

Prints up to 20-micron layer thickness that’s the lowest that most printers can go which is really really thin. You’re getting it nice and smooth prints with FDM.

It is an additive process so it uses a spool of filament plastic and it extrudes that through a hot nozzle at 195 degrees Celsius or around that temperature.

It extrudes it through a cone-shaped metal piece called the hot end and extrudes that out into a really really small thin strand.

The printer moves it around in three dimensional XY and z planes and squishes those layers on the bed on top of each other.

 

Stereolithography (SLA)-

SLA printing layers aren’t as thin but you’re still gonna get an amazing print quality because of less moving parts than FDM printers.

SLA

SLA printing uses a projector or a laser to hardened resin as a boat platform moves up. The prints upside down actually so it depends on what you want to print.

SLI is also more expensive and FDM is cheaper. So that’s why most people go with FDM printers.

 

RepRap Printer-

There’s a RepRap printer which works on an additive process.

The big metal part in the middle is the extruder and it has a big bed size of about eight or nine inches that’s the average size of the RepRap printer in the middle.

Here we have a Parmaan 200 printer which is still FDM but it uses two motors and three carriages to move the nozzle around and up and down on a rectangular bed.

Parmaan_200

We have an SLA printer, these are more expensive but the quality is a lot better but they don’t have as many materials as FDM printers.

There are two ways you can find models you can either make it by CAD software or download it online.

Most popular ones in a 3d printing industry are Google Sketchup in artists using 360 these are really easy software’s you can export STL file to send to your slicer software and they’re really easy for beginners to learn.

The area where 3D printing will impact first of all is in the production of large-scale but simple objects that everybody uses – Dr Adrian Bowyer.

RepRap-derived printers will be so useful that people will want to make new copies of the machine themselves.

It can print out just over half of the parts needed to build a new RepRap machine.

Printing out an object using RepRap technology is very simple, users download the model for the item they are interested in.

Insert it into one of the open-source software packages like simplify 3d and send it to the machine and hit print.

 

Filaments-

There are more different filament types. Most people print in PLL because it’s less toxic.

There is ABS from which people make Legos out if it’s a harder tougher plastic which is also harder to print.

3D_Material

There’s nylon filament, there’s carbon fibre, there’s TP which is flexible, there’s wood, metal. PVA materials can be printed from a 3d printer, so wood filament glow-in-the-dark come from PLA – which is cool.

So if your printer can print PLA most likely it can print wood or glow-in-the-dark.

 

How to find models online?

This is what a lot of people do for just a quick model there’s Thingiverse which is the most popular one.

People can just find quick models they can download them directly as an STL file send them to the slicer software and print any object.

I’ll definitely recommend going there first instead of making your own in your CAD software.

 

Slicing Software-

There are many different slicing software but I recommend three – the most common one called MakerBot desktop now is the slicer software for MakerBot printer.

Slicing Software

Kira is for Ultimakers and Simplify 3d is what most people use for RepRap printers.

First, you are going import your STL file into your slicer software and your slicing software is going to export it as a dot G code which we will erect into the printer

There are single and dual extruders on printers.

Extrude the filament out of the nozzle so similar series can only print in one material type but dual can print in two material types.

So your model can have two colours which are pretty cool.

 

 3D Printer Heated Bed-

3d printers should have heated beds which helps the material stick to them. It won’t pop off in the middle of the print so there are glass beds.

The glass beds have a nicer bottom surface but painters tape beds are usually able to stick the print down easier.

You can replace the painters tape but in glass, you can’t really take it off which gets pricey.3D Printer Bed

After a while infill is how much plastic is inside of your model, so I recommend anywhere from 10 to 35 percent infill but you can go up to 100.

It depends on how many times your heater goes around the perimeter of the object.  So one layer is going around once, two is going around twice and bottom layers are how many layers of solid material print at the bottom of your object.

I recommend about two to four bottom layers which work best bridging and overhang. Most printers can print about 45 degrees and over that, it will start to overhang.

So object orientation and your selector software is very important. You want to use as less support as possible it helps print faster and the surface will be a lot nicer. Use the least amount support and overhangs as possible.

As you can see 3d printing is an awesome technology as keep experimenting and keep researching.

For any kind of question please do comment. Thank You.